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  • Writer's pictureAriela Liberman

Understanding Carpal Tunnel: Causes, Symptoms, and Physical + Occupational Therapy-Based Treatments

Updated: Nov 14, 2023

In today's digital age, the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome has increased significantly, affecting individuals across various professions and lifestyles. As a leading physical therapy company committed to providing comprehensive care, we aim to shed light on this condition. In this detailed blog post, we will delve into the intricacies of carpal tunnel syndrome, exploring its causes, symptoms, and physical and occupational therapy-based treatments. Let's embark on this educational journey together!

Man clutching his wrist in pain.

What is Carpal Tunnel?

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition characterized by the compression of the median nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel—a narrow passageway in the wrist. This tunnel is formed by the carpal bones and a ligament, housing tendons, and the median nerve, responsible for sensation and motor function in the thumb, index, middle, and half of the ring fingers.

Carpal tunnel diagram

Causes of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

There are several factors that contribute to the development of carpal tunnel syndrome, including:

  1. Repetitive Motion: Engaging in repetitive tasks, such as typing, assembly line work, or playing musical instruments, can lead to inflammation and irritation of the tendons within the carpal tunnel, resulting in compression of the median nerve.

  2. Wrist Anatomy and Health: Certain anatomical variations, such as a narrower carpal tunnel or bony abnormalities, can predispose individuals to carpal tunnel syndrome. Additionally, conditions like arthritis or wrist fractures may increase the risk.

  3. Hormonal Changes: Hormonal changes, such as those occurring during pregnancy or menopause, can cause fluid retention and swelling, leading to increased pressure within the carpal tunnel.

Recognizing Carpal Tunnel Symptoms

Identifying the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome is crucial for early intervention. Common signs include:

  1. Numbness and Tingling: Individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome often experience numbness, tingling, and a pins-and-needles sensation in the thumb, index, middle, and half of the ring fingers.

  2. Weakness and Muscle Atrophy: Progressive weakness and muscle wasting in the affected hand may occur, making it challenging to perform fine motor tasks.

  3. Pain and Discomfort: Dull or sharp pain may radiate from the wrist to the forearm or even the upper arm, causing discomfort and limited hand function.

Demographics at Risk for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome can affect individuals across various demographics, but certain groups are more prone to developing this condition. Understanding the demographics at risk can help raise awareness and facilitate targeted prevention and treatment strategies. Here are some demographics commonly associated with carpal tunnel syndrome:

Occupation and Workforce

  • Office Workers: Individuals who spend prolonged hours typing, using a computer mouse, or performing repetitive tasks are at higher risk.

  • Assembly Line Workers: Jobs involving repetitive hand and wrist movements, such as manufacturing or packaging, can increase the likelihood of developing carpal tunnel syndrome.

  • Musicians: Instrumentalists who extensively use their hands and wrists, like guitarists or pianists, may be susceptible to this condition.


  • Women: Studies indicate that women are more prone to carpal tunnel syndrome than men, potentially due to hormonal factors or anatomical differences.


  • Middle-aged and Older Adults: Carpal tunnel syndrome is more prevalent in individuals between the ages of 40 and 60. Age-related changes in tissues and increased likelihood of underlying medical conditions may contribute to this higher risk.

Pre-existing Medical Conditions

  • Diabetes: Individuals with diabetes have an increased risk of developing nerve-related conditions, including carpal tunnel syndrome.

  • Obesity: Excess weight can contribute to increased pressure on the median nerve, potentially leading to compression within the carpal tunnel.

  • Arthritis: Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis can cause inflammation and joint damage, leading to carpal tunnel syndrome.


  • Expectant mothers often experience hormonal changes and fluid retention, which can increase pressure within the carpal tunnel, resulting in symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. These symptoms may resolve after pregnancy.

While these demographics are commonly associated with carpal tunnel syndrome, it's important to note that this condition can affect anyone. Awareness, early intervention, and appropriate preventive measures are essential for maintaining optimal hand and wrist health, regardless of demographic factors.

Physical & Occupational Therapy-Based Treatments for Carpal Tunnel

Physical therapy and occupational therapy play a pivotal role in managing early-stage carpal tunnel syndrome. Physical therapy focuses more on alleviating symptoms, improving wrist function, and preventing further complications while occupational therapy focuses on ergonomic modifications and lifestyle changes to improve symptoms. Here are some effective interventions that both professions utilize:

  1. Manual Therapy Techniques: Skilled physical therapists employ hands-on techniques to mobilize the wrist and surrounding structures, reducing inflammation and improving joint mobility.

  2. Therapeutic Exercises: Tailored exercises help strengthen the muscles of the forearm and hand, promoting stability and optimal alignment. Stretching exercises also improve flexibility and alleviate tension.

  3. Ergonomic Modifications: Our physical therapists provide valuable guidance on ergonomic principles and adjustments to optimize workstations and daily activities, reducing strain on the wrist.

  4. Modalities: Utilizing modalities such as ultrasound, electrical stimulation, or cold therapy can help reduce pain and inflammation, facilitating the healing process.

  5. Education and Lifestyle Modifications: Our physical therapy team educates patients on proper body mechanics, wrist positioning, and techniques to minimize stress on the median nerve. Lifestyle modifications, including activity breaks and stress management, are also emphasized.

Physical & Occupational Therapy After Surgery

If your case is more severe or your symptoms don't improve, surgery is sometimes recommended. Physical and/or occupational therapy after surgery can help:

  • Prevent scar tissue formation.

  • Restore strength to the wrist.

  • Change habits that may have led to initial symptoms.

Therapy treatment after surgery can include a multitude of interventions, including exercises, scar management, stretching, education, strengthening, and more.

Rehab United Can Help

Carpal tunnel syndrome can significantly impact one's quality of life, but with the right knowledge and treatment, individuals can find relief and regain function. At Rehab United, we are committed to empowering our patients with comprehensive care. By understanding the causes, recognizing the symptoms, and utilizing physical and occupational therapy-based treatments, you can take control of your carpal tunnel journey. Seek professional guidance, and let us guide you toward a pain-free, functional life.


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Ariela Liberman is a Marketing Associate and a staff writer for Rehab United, with a Bachelor of Arts in Media Studies. Born and raised in San Diego, she is a Southern California native with a passion for writing, digital marketing, health, and wellness.

Arturo Valle, PT, DPT, FAFS, CSCS, STMT-1, BFR-1, CCI, is a Physical Therapist, Clinic Director of Rehab United in Escondido, and Director of Rehab United’s Quality Assurance Program. As a graduate of USC’s Doctor of Physical Therapy Program, Dr. Valle has always emphasized the implementation of Evidence-Based Practice into all plans of care. Throughout his 12 years of experience, Dr. Valle has treated thousands of orthopedic-related and sports injuries and mentored countless Physical Therapists and Students of Physical Therapy.

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