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  • Writer's pictureAriela Liberman

Managing Urinary Incontinence Through Physical & Occupational Therapy

Updated: Nov 14, 2023

Urinary incontinence is a prevalent condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide, leading to discomfort, embarrassment, and social isolation. Fortunately, there are effective ways to manage and treat urinary incontinence, and physical therapy and occupational therapy play crucial roles in this process. In this blog post, we will explore the multifaceted approach to urinary incontinence within the realms of both physical therapy and occupational therapy.

doctor holding a female pelvis model

What is Urinary Incontinence?

Urinary incontinence is a condition characterized by the loss of bladder control, resulting in the inability to fully control urination. It can manifest in various ways, ranging from occasional small leaks of urine, such as during coughing or laughing, to experiencing intense and challenging-to-control urges to urinate.

The Spectrum of Urinary Incontinence

Urinary incontinence exists on a spectrum, with different individuals experiencing varying degrees of severity. Some common types of urinary incontinence include:

  1. Stress Incontinence: Stress incontinence occurs when there is pressure or stress on the bladder, leading to urine leakage. Activities such as laughing, coughing, sneezing, or exercising can trigger this type of incontinence.

  2. Urge Incontinence: Urge incontinence is characterized by a strong and sudden urge to urinate, often resulting in involuntary urine leakage. Individuals may struggle to reach a restroom in time to avoid accidents due to the urgency associated with this type of incontinence.

Causes and Contributing Factors

Urinary incontinence can be caused by a variety of factors, including weakened pelvic floor muscles, hormonal changes, nerve damage, certain medications, urinary tract infections, obesity, pregnancy and childbirth (in women), prostate problems (in men), and underlying medical conditions such as diabetes or neurological disorders.

Physical Therapy for Urinary Incontinence

Physical therapy focuses on treating physical impairments and disabilities, making it a valuable approach to managing urinary incontinence. Physical therapists employ targeted exercises and techniques to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles and promote better bladder control.

Pelvic Floor Muscle Strengthening

Physical therapists design exercise programs to specifically target the pelvic floor muscles. These exercises aim to improve muscle strength, endurance, and coordination, thereby enhancing the control individuals have over their urinary function. By diligently practicing these exercises, individuals can experience a reduction in involuntary urine leakage and regain confidence in their bladder control.

Biofeedback Techniques

Physical therapists may incorporate biofeedback techniques into their treatment plans. Biofeedback allows individuals to gain awareness of their pelvic floor muscles' activity and learn how to control them effectively. By using specialized sensors and visual or auditory cues, biofeedback enables patients to understand the correct muscle engagement and learn techniques for strengthening and relaxing the pelvic floor muscles.

Occupational Therapy for Urinary Incontinence

Occupational therapy is a specialized field that focuses on helping individuals overcome the challenges they face in their daily lives. When it comes to urinary incontinence, occupational therapists provide invaluable support in managing the condition.

Pelvic Floor Muscle Exercises

Occupational therapists work closely with patients to develop strategies for managing urinary incontinence. One of the key interventions is teaching pelvic floor muscle exercises. These exercises target the muscles that support the bladder and urethra, improving their strength and function. By effectively engaging and controlling these muscles, individuals can enhance bladder control and reduce episodes of involuntary urine leakage.

Bladder Training Techniques

Occupational therapists also employ bladder training techniques to help patients regain control over their bladder function. This may involve setting a regular voiding schedule, gradually increasing the time between voids, and using techniques to delay the urge to urinate. Through these interventions, individuals can gradually improve their bladder capacity and reduce the frequency of accidents associated with urinary incontinence.

Lifestyle Modifications

Occupational therapists recognize the importance of lifestyle modifications in managing urinary incontinence. They provide guidance on dietary changes that can reduce the risk of incontinence episodes, such as avoiding bladder irritants like caffeine, alcohol, and certain acidic foods. Additionally, therapists may address other contributing factors, such as constipation, that can impact bladder function and exacerbate urinary incontinence symptoms.

Integrating Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy

While occupational therapy and physical therapy have distinct focuses, integrating both approaches can provide comprehensive and holistic care for individuals with urinary incontinence depending on the individual, while others may find that one approach works better for them.

Customized Treatment Plans

By collaborating with both occupational therapists and physical therapists, patients can benefit from a tailored treatment plan that addresses their unique needs. The occupational therapist can provide practical strategies for managing daily activities and minimizing the risk of accidents, while the physical therapist can focus on strengthening the pelvic floor muscles and improving physical function.

Optimizing Treatment Outcomes

Combining occupational therapy and physical therapy can optimize treatment outcomes by addressing the various aspects of urinary incontinence. The practical strategies provided by occupational therapists can complement the physical interventions offered by physical therapists, resulting in a more holistic approach that improves both functional abilities and overall well-being.

Take the First Step in Managing Your Pelvic Health Today

Urinary incontinence is a prevalent condition that can significantly impact an individual's quality of life. By harnessing the benefits of occupational therapy, physical therapy, or both, our highly skilled pelvic health specialists can develop a comprehensive treatment plan that targets both the practical and physical aspects of managing urinary incontinence. Request an evaluation today!


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Ariela Liberman is a Marketing Associate and a staff writer for Rehab United, with a Bachelor of Arts in Media Studies. Born and raised in San Diego, she is a Southern California native with a passion for writing, digital marketing, health, and wellness.

Whitney Landis, PT, DPT, FAFS, is a Physical Therapist, Director of Pelvic Health, and Fellow of Applied Functional Science. Whitney graduated with her Doctorate in Physical Therapy from Chapman University in 2010 and has taken numerous continuing education courses pertaining to Women’s/Pelvic Health through Herman and Wallace Pelvic Rehabilitation Institute and Pelvic Guru. She has also completed the Gray Institute of Functional Transformation (GIFT) Fellowship in 2015.

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